Peter's Ancient History and Religion Pages

Peter's Index Peter's Index  Hesiod's Cosmology Hesiod's Cosmology  Ancient History Home Ancient History Home  Glossary C -> E Glossary C -> E 

Ancient History and Religion with Peter Eyland

Ancient Greek Religion Glossary A -> B



Citadel or upper fortified part of a greek city, esp of Athens [from akron = summit and polis = city]

Buxton p61; ACOD



city with an Apollo sanctuary

Buxton p166

ad hoc


Latin: created or designed for a particular purpose




impregnable shield associated with Zeus and Athena.
Either the bright edged thundercloud or the skin of Amaltheia (goat) who had nourished Zeus.
Has an image of Medusa’s head.



ἄγαλμα , ατος , τό

glory, delight, honour,
2. pleasing gift, esp. for the gods,
3. statue in honour of a god,
4. statue (more general than "andrias", q.v.),
also, portrait, picture,
5. generally, image.

Buxton p211; LSJ



A daughter of Kekrops, worshipped on the Acropolis at Athens.
Athena entrusted the care of Erichthonios to the three daughters of Kekrops with instructions not to open the basket where the baby was.
Aglauros and her sister Herse opened the chest and saw Erichthonios was half snake and threw themselves off the Akropolis.
Her other sister Pandrosos survived.

Buxton p30; LSJ


ἀγών, ῶνος , ὁ

gathering, assembly esp. assembly met to see games
2. place of contest, lists, course,
II. assembly of the Greeks at the national games:-- hence, contest for a prize at the games,
III. generally, struggle,
2. battle, action.
3. action at law, trial,
4. speech delivered in court or before an assembly or ruler,
b. Rhet., main argument of a speech
5. metaph. now is not the time for words, no time for sitting still, the crisis admits no dallying,
6. mental struggle, anxiety,
b. of speakers, vehemence, power,
IV. personified, Agôn, the divinity of the contest,




festival at Orchomenos and Chaironeia

Buxton p20


αἴτιος , α , ον

cause of i.e. culpable, responsible,
2. Subst., "ho aitios" the accused, the culprit
II. responsible for; being the cause of a thing to a person, mainly instrumental in causing the sea-fight
2. "to aition", cause

Buxton p280; LSJ



A Poet

Buxton p164


ἀλετρίς , ίδος , ἡ

A female slave who grinds corn. At Athens, one of the noble maidens who prepared meal for the offering-cakes.

Buxton p284; LSJ


Ἄλτις , ιος , ἡ

A precinct (bounded by a low wall), The sacred precinct of Zeus at Olympia,

Buxton p165; LSJ



Pausanias, Periegesis Hellados 3.16 Amyklai is a town South of Sparta to the west of Eurotas.
The Spartan festival, the Hyakinthia, took place at Amyklaion. It symbolised the reconciliation of Doric Sparta (Apollo) with the Achaian population of Amyklai (Hyakinthos).
The Acropolis of Amyklai and the Temenos of the Sanctuary of Apollo and Hyakinthos.
The Throne of Apollo Amyklaios. Stoa-like building or altar, which surrounded on three sides the colossal column-shaped statue of the god. The tomb-altar of the local god or hero Hyakinthos was used as the pedestal of the statue.

Buxton p27


ἀνάθεμα , ατος , τό

properly, like "anathêma" , anything dedicated,
2. anything devoted to evil, an accursed thing,
II. curse,

Buxton p191; LSJ


ἀνάθημα , ατος , τό

That which is set up [from anatithêmi ]: hence, like "agalma" , votive offering set up in a temple,
2. used by Hom. only in first sense of "agalma" delight, ornament,
3. of a slave in a temple, "agalma poleôs" devoted to this service by the city.

Buxton p191; LSJ



votive offering
passive form from anatithêmi:--lay upon, lay on as a burden
2. in Prose, refer, attribute, a thing to a person,
II. set up as a votive gift, dedicate, Pass., anatethênai
2. set up, erect, metaph., dedicate,
3. set up and leave in a place,
III. put back; pushing us forward or moving us back on the verge of death,
B. Med., put upon for oneself; pack on one's cart, put on one's shoulders,
2. impart, communicate something one's own,
3. remit, refer,
II. place differently, change about, e.g. the men on a draught-board,
2. take back a move at pettoi/: hence metaph., retract one's opinion

Buxton p191; LSJ



Anthia is dressed as Artemis in the Ephesian Tale of Xenophon of Ephesus.

Buxton p63



a mock battle of calvalry with 5 tribes (phylia) against the other 5 tribes

Neils p97



or parabates; a person in a race at festivals who leaped from his chariot in full armour and nimbly back again

Buxton p63



gifts of reconciliation or recompense

Neils p110



having power to avert evil influece or bad luck

Buxton p287; ACOD

arbor felix


Latin: fruit bearing tree

Buxton p280

arbor infelix


Latin: unproductive tree; mort-bois (free to be taken from the woods)

Buxton p280

Archaic Period (Greek)


c. 800 - 479 BCE including the founding of the Olympic games 776 BCE and the end of the Persian wars 479 BCE

H & P p17


ἄρχων , οντος , ὁ

(part. of "archo" ) ruler, commander,
II. as official title, chief magistrate, esp. at Athens
2. governor of a dependency or province, e.g. in the Athenian Empire, = praefectus,
3. generally, magistrate, official, president of a club

Buxton p40; LSJ



president [from "archo", to be first].

I. in Time, begin, make a beginning
1. mostly c. gen., make a beginning of
2. c. gen., begin from or with ...
3. c. gen. rei et dat. pers., begin a banquet to the gods
4. c. acc., show him the way
5. of actions
6. take the lead! generally, begin,
7. Gramm., of a word
II. in point of Place or Station, rule, govern, command
1. mostly c. gen., rule, be leader of
2. less freq. c. dat.,held command among them,
3. abs., rule, esp. hold a magistracy, to be archon
4. Pass.:--to be ruled, governed, etc.,

Buxton p42; LSJ



City in NE Peloponnesus, 4.8 km inland from the Gulf of Argos.
Argos was the center of Argolis and in the 7th cent. B.C.E., under King Pheidon, dominated much of the Peloponnesus.
For centuries it was one of the most powerful Greek cities, struggling with Sparta and rivaling Athens and Corinth. Much of Argos’ power disappeared after Cleomenes I of Sparta took (c.494 B.C.E.) the city. Pyrrhus was killed in an attack on Argos in 272.
The city joined the Achaean League in 229, and in 146 it was taken by Rome, under whose rule trade flourished. The Heraeum temple, 9.7 km N of Argos, was the principal center for the worship of the goddess Hera.
Argos produced important sculptors, including Polycletus, in the 5th cent.

Buxton p27, Columbia Encyc.



Communal rewards of gifts of gratitude by the State to individuals

Neils p108, 116



Aristogiton and Harmodius conspired to kill the despots Hippias and Hipparchus (Pisistratus’ sons) at the Panathenaea, when all the citizens were required to attend in arms.
They killed Hipparchus. Harmodius was immediately killed by guards.
Aristogiton died under torture.
Hippias was expelled in B.C.E. 510, four years after the assassination of Hipparchus.

Buxton p59; W. Smith, #5


ἄρκτος , ἡ

bears especially Ursus arctos, brown bear,
2. "hê Arktos", the constellation Ursa Major,
3. the north.
b. The other "arctos" is the south pole,
II. "hê arktos" , at Athens a girl appointed to the service of Artemis Brauronia or Archêgetis,
III. a kind of crab

Buxton p42; LSJ


ἀρρηϕόρος , ἡ

At Athens, a girl who carried a secret burden (Erichthonios) in the circular basket for which they were named (arrhichos = basket).
Athena gave the basket with Erichthonios inside to 3 girls.
Two looked inside and died. The snake (Erichthonios) appeared and grew to invent the chariot.

Buxton p42, 284; Neils p59; LSJ



Temple of Asklepios. In his temple sleeping people had dreams to show them how to recover their health.

Buxton p198



A star. Often "the star" ie the Dog star



ἄστυ , τό

town 2. lower town, opposite to acropolis.
II. in Attica, town (i.e. Athens), opposite to "agros" (country)
2. Athens, opposite to Phalerum or Piraeus
3. in Egypt, Alexandria
III. town in the material sense, opposite to "polis" (the civic body)
IV. Adv. "astude"

Buxton p32; LSJ


ἀσὺλία ἡ

asylum or refuge - literally prohibition against stealing
"hê asulia" , inviolability, i.e.,
1. safety to the person, of suppliants, "asulia brotôn";
of competitors at games;
in Inscrr., as a privilege bestowed on one who has deserved well of the state.
2. sanctity, inviolability of character, "asulia hiereôs".
3. of a place of refuge, right of sanctuary.
4. exemption from contributions

Buxton p158, 82; LSJ


ἆκλον , τό

prize of contest

Neils p106


ἆκλος , ὁ

contest either in war or sport, esp. contest for a prize,





Neils p106, 110



musical instrument

Neils p185

Bacis - oracles of


an appeal to an "oracle of Bacis" was an argument in a debate not a way of resolving a dispute

Buxton p76




Buxton p40




Buxton p14

bebelon alsos


profane grove in distinction to hieron alsos holy of holies

Buxton p168



The North wind who carried off Oreithyia (Daughter of Erechtheus) to Thrace (where Winter came from )

Neils p58




Buxton p42




Buxton p274

Peter's Index Peter's Index  Hesiod's Cosmology Hesiod's Cosmology  top of page top of page  Glossary C -> E Glossary C -> E 

email Write me a note if you found this useful